1045 steel

AISI 1045 steel is high-quality medium-carbon steel with high strength. It also can be called JIS S45C and DIN C45 steel. It is usually used in normalized condition because of its bad hardenability. It needs to be quenching and tempering treatment to get higher mechanical performance. It is used to manufacture machine parts with high strength requirements. Such as gears, shafts, piston pins, and etc. 1045 Steel round bar sheet plate properties and heat treat as below.

C45 Steel Characteristics

  • It is carbon steel and has great weldability and machinability.
  • After normalized and hot rolled, it will get high strength and impact properties.
  • It has low hardenability and critical hardenability diameter is 12-17mm in the water. And there has a tendency to crack when water quenching.
  • The hydrogen welding and argon arc welding is good for it, but the gas welding is not. It is required to preheat before the welding, and stress relief annealing should be performed after welding.

C45 Steel Application

1045 steel is widely used for the industry application that required higher strength and wear resistance than low-carbon steel. And the typical applications are gears, shafts, rolls, crankshafts, sockets, bolts and etc.

1045 Steel Physical Properties

Physical PropertiesMetricImperial
Density7.87 g/cc0.284 lb/in³

C45 Steel Mechanical Properties

Mechanical PropertiesMetricImperial
Hardness, Brinell163163
Hardness, Knoop (Converted from Brinell hardness)184184
Hardness, Rockwell B (Converted from Brinell hardness)8484
Hardness, Vickers (Converted from Brinell hardness)170170
Tensile Strength, Ultimate565 MPa 81900 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield310 MPa45000 psi
Elongation at Break (in 50 mm)16.0 %16.0 %
Reduction of Area40.0 %40.0 %
Modulus of Elasticity (Typical for steel)200 GPa29000 ksi
Bulk Modulus (Typical for steel)140 GPa20300 ksi
Poissons Ratio (Typical For Steel)0.2900.290
Shear Modulus (Typical for steel)80 GPa11600 ksi

aisi 1045

1045 Steel Grade Equivalent Chart

StandardASTM A29/A29M-05EN 10083/2-2006JIS G4051-2009ISO 683/18-1996

1045 Steel Chemical Composition

ASTM A29/A29M-050.43-0.500.60-0.90Max 0.040Max 0.050Max 0.10---
EN 10083/2-20060.42-0.500.50-0.80Max 0.045Max 0.045Max 0.40Max 0.40Max 0.10Max 0.40
JIS G4051-20090.42-0.480.60-0.90Max 0.030Max 0.0350.15-0.35--≤0.20
ISO 683/18-19960.42-0.500.50-0.80≤0.035≤0.0350.10-0.40---

1045 Steel Round Bar Sheet Plate Heat Treatment


Heat to 850°C – 1250°C (1562°F – 2282°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Cool in furnace


Heat to 800°C – 850°C (1472°F – 1562°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Cool in furnace.

C45 Steel Normalizing

Heat to 870°C – 920°C (1598°F-1688°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 10 – 15 minutes
Cool in still air

Stress Relieving

Heat to 550°C – 660°C (1022°F – 1220°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section
Cool in still air


Heat to 820°C – 850°C (1508°F – 1562°F)
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 10 – 15 minutes per 25mm of section
Quench in water or brine


Re-heat to 400°C – 650°C (752°F – 1202°F ) as required
Hold until the temperature is uniform
Soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section
Cool in still air

C45 Steel Process Notes

  1. The hardness is between HRC20~HRC30 after quenching and tempering.
  2. After quenching, the hardness is between HRC55~58 and the limit value up to HRC62.
  3. In order to make the steel performance stable, it should be processed and placed for 15-20 days before the use. The highest hardness for practical application is HRC55 (high-frequency quenching HRC58).
  4. It is a high-quality carbon structural steel with low hardness. It is easy to cut, and it is used to make molds, guideposts, tips, templates and etc.
  5. Do not use the heat treatment process of carburized and quenched.

1045 Steel Round Bar Sheet Plate Supply Range

Round Bar

Specification: diameter: Max 800mm; length: Max 9m
Surface: Black/Peeled/Machined(turned)/Polished(grounded)


Specification: thickness: Max 800mm; width: Max 2300mm; length: Max 9m
Surface: Black/Peeled/Machined/Polished(grounded,grinded,milled)


We have our own cutting and processing equipment. Specifications can be cut and customized according to your requirements.

We are a professional special steel stockist and supplier with a high-quality stand for many years. As a professional 1045 steel supplier, please contacts us for any request for it. Songshun Steel always with you.