What is 4340 Steel?
4340 steel is nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy steel. It is also called JIS SNCM439 and DIN 1.6563 steel. It will get high strength after the heat treat. And it has good toughness, fatigue resistance, impact toughness and etc. 4340 steel properties and 4340 steel composition as below.
It is an alloy structural grade which used by the SAE International(SAE), and it is chrome-nickel low alloy steel. 4340 steel will get high tensile strength, hardness and toughness after heat treatment. It is used widely in the transmission components of heavy chemical machinery. Different sections of each part of the casting which cause the temperature difference stress and phase transformation stress. If you can’t get their laws and characteristics, you can’t take the right rational processes. The consequence is that there is a risk of cracking the casting during the casting or heat treatment. So the control of chemical composition and the choice of the heat treatment process for the casting are really important.
1.6563 Steel Characteristics
- It has great atmospheric corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance and strength.
- Stay excellent toughness, wear resistance and fatigue strength after heat treated.
- It is alloy steel with low carbon and high nickel. About the coating and softening for leather knife sheath, it is a great choice.
- 4340 alloy steel bar is used widely in the aerospace industry because of great strength.
1.6563 Steel Application
4340 alloy steel is used to manufacture large and medium-sized plastic molds that require high strength and toughness. And it is used for making important quality controlling parts with good toughness, high strength, and large size, such as heavy machinery and high load shafts, dia of turbine shafts is larger than 250mm, helicopter rotor shafts, turbojet turbine shafts, blades, high-load transmission parts, crankshaft fasteners, gears and etc.
After nitriding, it also can be used to make important parts for special performance requirements. And it will be a great material for high strength and good plasticity parts after low-temperature tempering or isothermal quenching.
1.6563 Steel Physical Properties
|Density||7.85 g/cm³||0.284 lb/in³|
4340 Steel Mechanical Properties
|Tensile strength||745 MPa||108000 psi|
|Yield strength||470 MPa||68200 psi|
|Bulk modulus(typical for steel)||140 GPa||20300 ksi|
|Shear modulus(typical for steel)||80 GPa||11600 ksi|
|Elastic modulus||190-210 GPa||27557-30458 ksi|
|Elongation at break||22%||22%|
|Reduction of area||50%||50%|
|Hardness, Knoop(converted from Brinell hardness)||240||240|
|Hardness, Rockwell B(converted from Brinell hardness)||95||95|
|Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell hardness. Value below normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only)||17||17|
|Hardness, Vickers(converted from Brinell hardness)||228||228|
|Machinability(annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100 machinability for AISI 1212 steel.)||50||50|
4340 Steel Grade Equivalent Chart
|Standard||ASTM A29 / A29M-05||EN 10263/4-2001||JIS G4053-2008||ISO 683/18-1996|
4340 Steel Chemical Composition
|ASTM A29 / A29M-05||0.38-0.43||0.60-0.80||≤0.035||≤0.040||0.15-0.35||0.70-0.90||0.20-0.30||1.65-2.00|
4340 Steel Heat Treatment and Process
For pre-hardened steel stress relieving is achieved by heating steel 4340 to between 500 to 550°C. Heat to 600 °C – 650 °C, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 1 hour per 25 mm section, and cool in still air.
AISI 4340 alloy steel can be cold worked using all conventional methods in the annealed condition. It has high ductility.
A full anneal may be done at 844°C (1550 F) followed by controlled (furnace) cooling at a rate not faster than 10°C (50 F) per hour down to 315°C (600 F). From 315°C 600 F, it may be air cooled.
AISI 4340 alloy steel should be in the heat treated or normalized and heat treated condition before tempering. The tempering temperature for depends upon the strength level desired. For strength levels in the 260 – 280 ksi range temper at 232°C (450 F). For strength in the 125 – 200 ksi range temper at 510°C (950 F). And don’t temper the 4340 steels if it is in the 220 – 260 ksi strength range as tempering can result in degradation of impact resistance for this level of strength. Tempering should be avoided if possible within the range 250 °C – 450 °C due to temper brittleness.
4140 Steel Heat Treatment
AISI 4340 alloy steel is heat treated at 830°C (1525°F) followed by quenching in oil.
Flame or Induction Hardening
As mentioned above, pre-hardened and tempered 4340 steel bars or plates can be further surface hardened by either the flame or induction hardening methods resulting in a case hardness in excess of Rc 50. AISI 4340 steel parts should be heated as quickly as possible to the austenitic temperature range (830 °C – 860 °C) and required case depth followed by an immediate oil or water quenching, depending upon hardness required, workpiece size/shape and quenching arrangements.
Following quenching to hand warm, tempering at 150°C – 200°C will reduce stresses in the case with minimal effect on its hardness.
All de-carburized surface material must first be removed to ensure the best results.
Hardened and tempered 4340 alloy steel can also be nitrided, giving a surface hardness of up to Rc 60. Heat to 500°C – 530°C and hold for sufficient time (from 10 to 60 hours) to develop the depth of the case. Nitriding should be followed by slow cooling (no quench) reducing the problem of distortion. The nitrided grade 4340 materials can therefore be machined to near final size, leaving a small grinding allowance only. The tensile strength of the 4340 steel material core is usually not affected since the nitriding temperature range is generally below the original tempering temperature employed.
Surface hardness achievable is 600 to 650HV.
It can be machined using all conventional techniques. Machining process can be performed in the annealed or normalized and tempered conditions.
Welding of steel in the hardened and tempered condition (as normally supplied), is not recommended and should be avoided if at all possible, because of the danger of quench cracking, as the mechanical properties will be altered within the weld heat affected zone.
If welding must be carried out, pre-heat to 200 to 300°C and maintain this while welding. Immediately after welding stress relieve at 550 to 650°C, prior to hardening and tempering.
If welding in the hardened and tempered condition is really necessary, then the work piece, immediately on cooling to hand warm, should be if possible stress relieved at 15 °C below the original tempering temperature.
4340 Steel Quality Certificate
4340 Steel Supply Range
Specification: diameter: 10mm – 1000mm; length: 2000mm-5000mm
Surface: Black Surface/Bright Surface/ Grinded/Peeled/Turned
Specification: thickness: 50-120mm; width: 2000mm-2300mm; length: 3000mm-5800mm
Surface: Black Surface/Bright Surface/ Grinded/Peeled/Turned
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