Tool steel is used to make cutting tools, measuring tools, dies and so much more. It has high hardness and can maintain high hardness, red hardness, wear-resistance and suitable toughness at the high-temperature condition. There are three types of tool steel. They are carbon tool steel, alloy tool steel and high-speed tool steel. No matter what type of tool steel, they have the common requirements. Such as the high hardness, good wear-resistance and proper toughness and etc. But everyone has own special properties. For example red hardness, shockproof, dimension stability and other mechanical properties. At the production process, workers will take all various tool steel to get the right heat treatment to make it satisfy the needs of steel properties on different applications. As below, you will know all tool steel grades and their applications.
Carbon Tool Steel Properties And Applications
The carbon element of carbon tool steel is at the range of 0.65%-1.35%. Carbon tool steel is a good choice for tools material. According to the different requirements of smelting quality, it can be classified as high-level quality carbon tool steel and general carbon tool steel. And the content of sulfur, phosphorus and nonmetallic inclusions of high-level quality carbon tool steel is lower than the general one. So it has better mechanical properties.
The carbon tool steel usually is used to make sample measuring tools and cutting tools with small size and low-speed. And also is a good raw material for sample dies.
Carbon Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|GB||C(%)||Mn(%)||Si(%)||S(%)||P(%)||Hardness (After Annealing)||Temperature (℃), Heat-Carrying Agent||Hardness (After Quenching)|
|T7||0.65-0.74||Max 0.40||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 187HB||800-820, Water||Min 62HRC|
|T8||0.75-0.84||Max 0.40||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 187HB||780-800. Water||Min 62HRC|
|T8Mn||0.80-0.90||0.40-0.60||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 187HB||780-800. Water||Min 62HRC|
|T9||0.85-0.94||Max 0.40||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 192HB||760-780, Water||Min 62HRC|
|T10||0.95-1.04||Max 0.40||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 197HB||760-780, Water||Min 62HRC|
|T11||1.05-1.14||Max 0.40||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 207HB||760-780, Water||Min 62HRC|
|T12||1.15-1.24||Max 0.40||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 207HB||760-780, Water||Min 62HRC|
|T13||1.25-1.35||Max 0.40||Max 0.35||Max 0.030||Max 0.035||Max 217HB||760-780, Water||Min 62HRC|
Alloy Tool Steel Properties And Applications
It is the steel produced by adding proper alloy elements at the base of carbon steel to get higher properties. Compare with carbon tool steel, its hardness, toughness and wear-resistance are raise. And its hardenability and hot hardness are raised dramatically. And the steel grades are more, all kinds of characters can satisfy all kinds of needs of tools. So it was used to make measuring tools, molds and blade tools with big size, complex shape and high requirement of performance.
The carbon content of alloy tool steel is higher, many grades of them are high carbon steel. But the hot-work die steel is called medium carbon steel due to its high toughness and thermal conductivity. The elements are added are wolfram, molybdenum, chromium, vanadium, manganese, silicon and so much more. Different levels for alloy steel because of the different total amount of alloy elements. And if the alloy elements amount is less than 5%, then it is low alloy tool steel. The medium alloy tool steel is at the range of 5%-10%. And the high alloy tool steels are higher than 10%. At the present time, most of the alloy tool steel is low alloy tool steel.
The heat treatment of alloy tool steel usually uses the way of quenching and low-temperature tempering. But hot-work die steel needs great toughness, so must take the processing of hardening and tempering. By the way, this type of steel includes d2 tool steel, a2 tool steel, o1 tool steel, o2 tool steel, h13 tool steel, p20 tool steel, 4140 tool steel, h11 tool steel, d3 tool steel, 42Crmo4 and etc.
Alloy Tool Steel Chemical Composition
|Cr06||1.30-1.45||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||0.50-0.70||-||-||-||-|
|Cr2||0.95-1.10||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||1.30-1.65||-||-||-||-|
|9Cr2||0.80-0.95||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||1.30-1.70||-||-||-||-|
|W||1.05-1.25||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||0.10-0.30||-||0.80-1.20||-||-|
|Cr12||2.00-2.30||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||11.50-13.00||-||-||-||-|
|Cr12Mo1V1||1.40-1.60||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||11.00-13.00||0.70-1.20||-||Max 1.10||Co Max 1.00|
|Cr12MoV||1.45-1.70||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||11.00-12.50||0.40-0.60||-||0.15-0.30||-|
|Cr5Mo1V||0.95-1.05||Max 0.50||Max 1.00||4.75-5.50||0.90-1.40||-||0.15-0.50||-|
|6Cr4W3Mo2VNb||0.60-0.70||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||3.80-4.40||1.80-2.50||2.50-3.50||0.80-1.20||No: 0.20-0.35|
|6W6Mo5Cr4V||0.55-0.65||Max 0.40||Max 0.60||3.70-4.30||4.50-5.50||6.00-7.00||0.70-1.10||-|
|5CrNiMo||0.50-0.60||Max 0.40||0.50-0.80||0.50-0.80||0.15-0.30||-||-||Ni: 1.40-1.80|
|3Cr2W8V||0.30-0.40||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||2.20-2.70||-||7.50-9.00||0.20-0.50||-|
|5Cr4W5Mo2V||0.40-0.50||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||3.40-4.40||1.50-2.10||4.50-5.30||0.70-1.10||-|
|8Cr3||0.75-0.85||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||3.20-3.80||-||-||-||-|
|7Mn15Cr2AI3V2WMo||0.65-0.75||Max 0.80||14.50-16.50||2.00-2.50||0.50-0.80||0.50-0.80||1.50-2.00||AI: 2.30-3.30|
High Speed Tool Steel Properties and Applications
Its carbon elements amount at the range of 0.70%-1.65%. And the alloy element accounts for 10%-20%. So the hardness, hardenability, wear-resistance and hot hardness of it be raised hugely. In steel, there is a lot of alloy carbide. Even in the temperature of 600℃, its hardness also at a high level. High-speed tool steel is the best material for blade tools which with high cutting speed. And also suitable for other cutting tools with big or small size and high wear-resistance. And it also can be used to make molds, rolls and machine fittings with high wear-resistance requirements.
The high-speed tool steel can be classified into tungsten-series high-speed steel, Mo-series high-speed steel, Co-series high-speed steel and so much more by different alloy element amounts. And it also is classified to general high-speed tool steel (include W-series high-speed steel and Mo-series high-speed steel) and super-hard high-speed steel. The general one usually is used to make medium hardness and strength metal material tools. And super-hard high-speed steel is mainly used to produce tools that be used to process high hardness and toughness metal material. Those metal materials include heat-resisting steels, stainless steel and etc. M2 tool steel and M42 tool steel are the most popular for this type.
|W18Cr4V||T1||0.70-0.80||17.5-19.0||Max 0.30||3.80-4.40||1.00-1.40||-||0.20-0.40||0.10-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||-|
|W9Mo3Cr4V||0.77-0.87||8.50-9.50||2.70-3.30||3.80-4.40||1.30-1.70||-||0.20-0.40||0.20-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||-|
|W6Mo5Cr4V2||M2 (Regular C)||0.80-0.90||5.50-6.75||4.50-5.50||3.80-4.40||1.75-2.20||-||0.20-0.45||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||-|
|CW6Mo5Cr4V2||M2 (High C)||0.95-1.05||5.50-6.75||4.50-5.50||3.80-4.40||1.75-2.20||-||0.20-0.45||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||-|
|W2Mo9Cr4V2||M7||0.97-1.05||1.40-2.10||8.20-9.20||3.50-4.00||1.75-2.25||-||0.20-0.55||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|9W18Cr4V||0.90-1.00||17.5-19.0||Max 0.30||3.80-4.40||1.00-1.40||-||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W14Cr4VMnRE||0.80-0.90||13.2-15.0||Max 0.30||3.50-4.00||1.40-1.70||-||Max 0.50||0.35-0.55||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||RE: 0.07|
|W12Cr4V4Mo||1.20-1.40||11.5-13.0||0.90-1.20||3.80-4.40||3.80-4.40||-||Max 0.40||Max 0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W6Mo5Cr4V3||M3(class a)||1.00-1.10||5.00-6.75||4.75-6.75||3.75-4.50||2.25-2.75||-||0.20-0.45||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|CW6Mo5Cr4V3||M3(class b)||1.15-1.25||5.00-6.75||4.75-6.75||3.75-4.50||2.75-3.25||-||0.20-0.45||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W6Mo5Cr4V2Co5||M35||0.80-0.90||5.50-6.50||4.50-5.50||3.75-4.50||1.75-2.25||4.50-5.50||0.20-0.45||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W7Mo4Cr4V2Co5||M41||1.05-1.15||6.25-7.00||3.25-4.75||3.75-4.50||1.75-2.25||4.75-5.75||0.15-0.50||0.20-0.60||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|0.70-0.80||17.5-19.0||0.40-1.00||3.75-4.50||0.80-1.20||4.25-5.75||0.20-0.40||0.10-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|8W18Cr4V2Co8||0.75-0.65||17.5-19.0||0.50-1.25||3.75-5.00||1.80-2.40||7.00-9.50||0.20-0.40||0.20-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W12Cr4V5Co5||T15||1.50-1.60||11.75-13.00||Max 1.00||3.75-5.00||4.50-5.25||4.75-5.25||0.15-0.40||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W6Mo5Cr4V2AI||1.05-1.20||5.50-6.75||4.50-5.50||8.80-4.40||1.75-2.20||-||0.20-0.60||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||AI: 0.80-1.20|
|W2Mo9Cr4VCo8||M42||1.05-1.15||1.15-1.85||9.00-10.00||3.50-4.25||0.95-1.35||7.75-8.75||0.15-0.65||0.15-0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W7Mo4Cr4V2||1.05-1.15||6.25-7.00||3.25-4.25||8.75-4.50||1.75-2.25||4.75-5.75||0.15-0.50||0.20-0.60||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
|W10Mo4Cr4V3AI||1.30-1.45||9.00-10.50||3.50-4.50||3.80-4.50||2.70-3.20||-||Max 0.50||Max 0.50||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||AI: 0.70-1.20|
|W6Mo5Cr4V5Si||1.55-1.65||5.50-6.50||5.00-6.00||8.80-4.40||4.20-5.20||-||1.00-1.40||Max 0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030||Nb: 0.2-0.5
|W12Mo3Cr4V3Co5Si||1.20-1.30||11.50-13.50||2.80-3.40||3.80-4.40||2.80-3.40||4.70-5.10||0.80-1.20||Max 0.40||Max 0.030||Max 0.030|
Tool Steel Heat Treatment
The service lifetime of tool steel is closely related to the quality of heat treatment. The way of pre-heat treatment is almost spheroidizing annealing to get uniform spheroidized structure. The ultimately of heat treatment is quenching and low-temperature tempering (high speed tool steel is quenching and tempering on the temperature of 560℃ for three times). After that, the wear-resistance of tools can be guaranteed.
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